there will be signs in the sun, in the moon, and in the stars; and on the earth
distress of nations, with perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring;26 men’s
hearts failing them from fear and the expectation of those things which are
coming on the earth,for the powers of the
heavens will be shaken.27 Then
they will see the Son of Mancoming
in a cloud with power and great glory.28 Now
when these things begin to happen, look up and lift up your heads, becauseyour redemption draws near.” (Luke21:25-28NKJV)
Jesus is referring in this passage to the “tribulations” that proceed the end of the age. Rather than be distressed by these things, the Lord urges His followers “lift up your heads for your redemption draws near”. For what it’s worth, my assessment is that the tribulations are now starting in earnest but that is not the focus of this short post. What intrigues me is Jesus’ reference to “redemption” (Greek: ἀπολύτρωσις) in this context. The word literally means to be freed or delivered from something by means of a payment. Most Christians would understand that they had already been redeemed, and in a sense they have. Paul affirms this when he writes that Christians, being those who have faith in Christ in advance of His coming (Eph1:12 Greek: προηλπικότας) – have already been sealed with the Spirit as a down-payment of their glorious inheritance. He affirms also that this pertains to “the ἀπολύτρωσις (redemption) of the purchased possession” (Eph1:14). We know the price paid – it is the Saviour’s blood, no less. As to whom (if anyone) the payment is made, that is another mystery which may feature in a later post. What I’m concerned with here is what is to be redeemed and when it will have been accomplished.
For like Jesus, Paul also refers to an aspect of the Christian’s redemption that is yet to occur. He is more explicit about the matter in another passage where he writes: “We know that the whole creation has been groaning in labour pains until now; and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly while we wait for adoption, the “ἀπολύτρωσις” (redemption) of our bodies” (Rom8:22-23 NRSV). And in the same epistle when speaking of the inner struggle we face between the desires of the flesh and the nobler aspirations of the God-given spirit, he writes “I see in my members another law at war with the law of my mind, making me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members. 24 Wretched man that I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death?” (Rom7:23-24NRSV). I believe Paul to be saying** that it is the procreated intellectual vessel our soul inhabits at birth that is the source of man’s problem with sin – not the soul itself, having been planted by God, hence “who will deliver me from this body…”, the “me” being the soul/spirit that returns to God when the body and brain dies. Yet the soul being pliant is itself liable to corruption, for which reason Peter urges Christians to “abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul”. Christians are a people called out from the world, elected through unmerited grace to serve the living God in spirit and truth whilst still within this “body of death”. To do so they need to be spiritually regenerated, cleansed through the Blood and empowered by the Spirit.
Yet, Paul is saying, even this is not the end of the story – what will ultimately be needed is a new body. And for those who are joint-heirs with Christ and are to inherit the kingdom in the age to come (cf. previous post) this will be provided: “those who eagerly wait for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body, according to the working by which He is able even to subdue all things to Himself (Phi3:20-21). Only then will the Christian’s redemption be complete.
** All this is worked out in detail in my book – a free PDF is available HERE
Those who are considered worthy of a place in that age and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage. 36 Indeed they cannot die anymore, because they are like angels and are children of God, being children of the resurrection (Lk20:35-36NRSV)
Proceeding chapter by chapter through the New Testament I have come to perceive that one does not need to rely on Revelation alone to make a case for pre-millennialism. The apocalyptic passage (ch20:5-6) is explicit on the matter whereas Jesus’ statement in Luke 20 which was in response to the Sadducees’ attempt to trick Him concerning the resurrection of the dead at the least implies there will be two resurrections (as does Jn6:44+54). For, says He, those who are “found worthy” will be resurrected at the end of the current age whereas the Bible is clear enough that everyone is to be resurrected at some stage, worthy or otherwise. Likewise, the righteous, says Jesus, will be “worthy of a place in that age” (Greek: kataxiothentes tou ainos ekeinou tuchein), which again would appear to support the case.
Premillennialism appears to have been the predominant view of the ante-Nicene Church Fathers such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Hippolytus of Rome, Tertullian, Cyprian, Barnabas and Lactantius and by deduction others whom they had instructed or by whom they had been instructed. Such were supported initially by Augustine of Hippo together with a good number of his contemporaries inside as well as some breakaway groups outside the Church. It was initially Marcion who challenged the consensus in the second century; he was later clearly shown to be a heretic. But the key influencers were undoubtedly Augustine (who changed his mind) and Origen of Alexandria (who was inclined to a Platonic spiritualism); these colossi of the Western and Eastern Church ensuring that Millenarian views came to be rejected by the fourth century, reinforced one suspects by the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine which transformed the Church’s perspective with regard to its relationships with the political structures of the world. More background to why the churches largely came to reject premillennialism can be found HERE but although it is not the primary consideration I will continue to draw out evidence for such a concept as we proceed through the rest of the New Testament.
Free PDF of The Fellowship of the Secret available HERE
41 Now as (Jesus) drew near (to Jerusalem), He saw the city and wept over it, 42 saying, “If you had known, even you, especially in this your day, the things that make for your peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. 43 For days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment around you, surround you and close you in on every side, 44 and level you, and your children within you, to the ground; and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not know the time of your visitation.” (Luke19:41-44NKJV)
The Jews’ two-stage rejection of Jesus and His Kingdom
Confusion has arisen with regard to the implications of the
rejection of Jesus as Messiah by His people in terms of the apparent subversion
of Old Testament prophecy that, to the mystification of many, Paul refers to a
number of times in his epistles. I have utilized one such reference as the title
of my book: that is where the apostle explains that he had been called in order
to “enlighten everyone concerning THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE SECRET (plan)
known only to God who had created all things through Jesus Christ; (this
mystery or secret) having been hidden through the ages from the authorities of Heaven
is brought to light through the Church, so revealing the multi-faceted nature
of God’s wisdom regarding His purpose for the ages which He accomplished in
The passage from Luke 19 quoted at the top of this post relates to the first of two rejections by the Jews of their Messiah resulting in turn in two subversions to Old Testament prophecy. Paul refers to it as “the mystery (or secret) that has been hidden through the ages even from the authorities of Heaven (Eph3:9). The first subversion is recognized by Christendom but not Jewry whilst the second has not really been understood by either, being the fellowship of the secret; initial incredulity for Christendom, potential Good News for Jewry and great news for the world. I endeavour to unpack what I mean by that statement in my book and little by little within these posts.
As I pointed out in an earlier post, many ordinary Jewish inhabitants of Jerusalem will have welcomed Jesus to their city but their leaders were indignant and already plotting His downfall. This was the first rejection culminating in the crucifixion, and as Jesus stated (Lk19:42) it put paid to the prophecies indicating that the coming of the Messiah would bring an end to Israel’s political and military problems. The promise of peace and security for Jerusalem, evident in much prophecy including the angelic annunciations concerning the birth of Jesus and John Baptist, would not be secured by Jesus in His earthly lifetime, quite the contrary in fact; worse was to come for Israel in about a generation’s time. We should not be so surprised that historically the Jews have not perceived the crucified Nazarene prophet to be their Messiah – for truly, He did not in any substantive sense fulfil the geopolitical promises anticipated of Him in the Old Testament. But Jesus has just explained why that should be the case, at least as far as the current age is concerned (note Lk24:44), and Paul clarifies the matter for the churches in his Ephesians reference to God’s secret plan that (humanly speaking) resulted from the Jews’ rejection of their Messiah.
But the Jew’s role in the crucifixion of their intended Messiah is not per se what resulted in the rejection of their nation as sole inheritors of the Kingdom that Paul is actually referring to in Ephesians 3 and also Romans 11 (vv11-15). Such is affirmed in Acts where the apostle indicates that even after Pentecost it was still the Jewish people’s “day of visitation” and they were still not appreciating it. Paul gave this warning to certain Jews at Antioch:
So be careful! – or
what the prophets say will happen to you: “Cast your eyes around you mockers;
be amazed and perish! For I am doing
something in your own days that you would never believe if you were told of it”
(Acts13:40,41 New Jerusalem Bible)
Note the warning is about what will or might happen to the Jewish nation, not what already had happened. Their day of visitation did not end when they crucified Christ: that event that Jesus referred to as His other baptism had been both divinely planned and prophesied (Acts2:23; Is53:5); what was shortly to occur was undoubtedly planned or foreknown (by God) but never prophesied; it concerns the secret fellowship (or community partnership) “hidden in God” even from earlier prophets; it concerned the establishment of a universal Church. So the second rejection pertained to the fact that so many Jews refused to acknowledge that the resurrection and the miraculous signs associated with the apostles’ teaching were the vindication of Jesus’s earlier claims. They still rejected His Messiah-ship even now that He had been raised to the highest Heavens and empowered His disciples to work miracles in His name. That, in modern parlance is where they finally blew it. They had already blown the prospect of political peace and security through their rejection of Jesus in His lifetime, now something even more radical was at stake: Kingdom inheritance. The very next Sabbath, these same leaders “filled with jealousy” towards the apostles, just as they had been toward Jesus used blasphemies to contradict everything Paul said (v45), which prompted the apostle to add this:
We had to proclaim the
word of God to you (Jews) first, but since you have rejected it, (i.e. the apostle’s message)
since you do not think yourselves worthy
of eternal life, here and now we turn to the Gentiles. For this is what the
Lord commanded us to do when He said “I have made you (Israel) a light to the
nations, so that my salvation may reach the remotest parts of the world”
The prophecy from which Paul quotes (Is49) declares Israel
to be God’s servant, through whom He would manifest His glory (v3) and by whom
He would bring saving enlightenment to the whole world (v6). They as His chosen
people and future heirs of the world (cf. Rom4:13,14) would have come to know
“eternal life”, i.e. an intimate relationship with God and life of an eternal
quality (Jn17:3) through sanctification in Christ blood (Zech13:1); but as the same
prophet foretold this had been prophetically linked with the restoration and
liberation of their nation and holy city through the direct intervention of a
returning messiah, who as well as residing with his people would act as judge
and arbitrator with opposing nations (Is2:4; Mic4:3.) Now, says Paul, as a
result of their rejection, the universal enlightenment would go ahead without
them by means of a newly formed universal assembly founded by their Messiah and
His apostles, none of whom had been drawn from the ranks of the Jewish sacral
hierarchy. Although it is only briefly alluded to in Scripture, the longed-for
national liberation and the re-instatement of Israel to “the Kingdom” would now
have to wait (Acts1:6). After issuing this warning, Paul and Barnabas
symbolically shook the dust from off their feet as they left Antioch (13:51),
just as the disciples had done to towns and homes that rejected the “gospel of
the Kingdom” preached during Christ’s earthly ministry. Shortly afterwards at
Corinth, preaching as usual in the synagogue, certain Jews “turned against
(Paul) and started to insult him”. Paul took his cloak and shook it out in
front of them, saying:
“Your blood be on your
own heads; from now on I will go to the Gentiles with a clear conscience” (Acts18:6 New Jerusalem Bible).
One is bound to ask why Paul’s conscience would not have been clear (literally: clean) if he had brought this gospel to the Gentiles and the Jews hadn’t rejected his message: wasn’t his message of salvation intended for all? Well, yes and no: “for as a result of the Jews’ rejection, salvation has come to the Gentiles to provoke them to jealousy” (cf. Rom11:11). I had previously understood this to be merely a question of order, but there would no logical reason for such if the privileges of Kingdom service and the eternal life pertaining to it were from the time of Pentecost being offered to the world; apart from which the apostles would have been quite clear in their minds about the matter, which they certainly were not, with the obvious exception of the lately-commissioned Saul of Tarsus. Apart from which, Paul writing to the Romans is adamant: salvation came to the Gentiles as a result of the Jews’ rejection; it was not a question of protocol or order. For as I am seeking to explain there is salvation and there is SALVATION. The latter was earmarked for the Jews alone in Old Testament prophecy but was to be made available to the nations through Paul’s revelation of what in short-hand I refer to as “the fellowship of the secret”. “Salvation” as foretold for the Gentile nations meant one would be enlightened, pardoned in the name of Jesus if one acknowledged Him as Lord, leading to acceptance as a subject in God’s Kingdom, for all who call on the name of the Lord would be saved (i.e. spared perdition). SALVATION on the other hand was to be born again by water and Spirit, delivered from corruption by means of sanctification in the blood appointed for sprinkling provided through Calvary (Heb12:24 cf. Greek) resulting in interior communion with Christ, eternal life, participation in God’s royal priesthood and a joint-inheritance with the Son of God, no-less. Once this mystery is grasped it has wondrous implications to broader providence. This is explained more fully in my book*, along with how such a concept can be reconciled with the rest of the Bible’s teaching.
Irenaeus was a staunch defender of the Christian faith, the essentials of which, according to this man at least, were uniformly understood by all the globally expanding churches having recently been established by the apostles and their immediate successors. In stark contrast to 4th century Augustine, Irenaeus features very positively in my book, since much of what I believe the Spirit has revealed to me accords with his teaching and more importantly that of the churches of his time. Here is a quote from chapter three of my book:
“This (teaching concerning law and grace) will be a new interpretation to many but it is what it I have been shown and it works: the teaching of Jesus, Paul and the other apostles acquire perfect coherence once the re-interpretations and various linguistic ameliorations presented in this package are taken on board. How do I know that? – simply by reading the New Testament with reference to the Greek, over and over again and observing how it now entirely gels. What many will regard as my novel interpretations actually accord more with that of the Ancient Church, i.e. the teaching of the ante-Nicene fathers; perhaps most clearly in the case of Irenaeus, who was hardly a maverick but a staunch defender of the Faith as it had been received from the apostles. He had personally come under the tutelage of Polycarp who in turn was an immediate disciple of the Apostle John. Not that the other ante-Nicene Fathers contradict my assertions in this area, but second century Irenaeus not only affirms Christ’s filling out of the Decalogue[note 1] but also the purpose and context of gospel salvation within broader providence, the restoration of physical creation at the Parousia, pre-millennialism, a tripartite anthropology, a positive role for natural law, the utilisation of Enoch as an important reference source and the affirmation of an “Elijah” to come. These have been cross-referenced where they occur in the book.
Irenaeus of course was but one man but note what he writes concerning the UNIFORMITY OF ESSENTIAL DOCTRINE WITHIN THE 2ND CENTURY CHURCHES:
“The Church having received this preaching and this Faith although scattered throughout the whole world yet as if occupying one house carefully preserves it. She also believes these points of doctrine just as if she had one soul and one and the same heart and proclaims and teaches them and hands them down with perfect harmony as if she only possessed one mouth. For the churches which have been planted in Germany do not believe or hand down anything different, nor do those in Spain or Gaul. . . But as the sun, that creature of God is one and the same throughout the whole world, so also the preaching of the Truth shines everywhere and enlightens all men that are willing to come to a knowledge of the truth ” [note 2]
Irenaeus’ depiction of the 2nd Century churches’ doctrinal uniformity may be exaggerated but equally it could not have been the case that the essential doctrines concerning the nature of faith and salvation could have UNIFORMLY BEEN IN ERROR given that each of the churches he refers to could trace its origins just two or three generations back to the apostles.
It is not that all the second century churches will have come to agreement through a sublimity of biblical exegesis, it is because a good number of these assemblies will have been FOUNDED AND SUPERINTENDED BY THE GREAT APOSTLE HIMSELF OR HIS DIRECT APPOINTEES. These leaders knew what Paul was talking about because they or their leaders had heard Paul and talked to him; they did not have to rely entirely upon his pastoral epistles that even his fellow apostle Peter observed were “hard to understand” and misunderstood by many (2Pet3:16NKJV). I am not claiming that such an historical affirmation can be provided for ALL the assertions in my book [note 4], for as third century Origen had observed, certain mysteries were left to be explored and resolved over the course of the Church’s pilgrimage. But I say again that cannot apply to the ESSENTIALS OF CHRISTIAN SALVATION which were made clear from the start and have always been adequately set forth within the Apostolic Church in East and West, at least in terms of the “hows” (i.e. what is required for salvation), if not always the “whys” and “wherefores”, such as the context of gospel salvation within broader providence and the nature of man’s future participation with the Godhead, being mysteries destined to be revealed in their due time (cf. Rev10:4-10)”
Excerpt from “Fellowship of the Secret” chapter 3 (Justification and the Faithfulness of Christ)
 “Irenaeus against
heresies” Book IV chap. 13 (paras 1 and 2)
 “Irenaeus against
heresies” Book I chap. 10 para 2
 The Early Fathers’ writings are available on the internet HERE
 “The Fellowship of the Secret” – a free PDF is available HERE
19 “There was a certain rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and fared sumptuously every day. 20 But there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, full of sores, who was laid at his gate, 21 desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man’s table. Moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. 22 So it was that the beggar died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s bosom. The rich man also died and was buried. 23 And being in torments in Hades, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.24 “Then he cried and said, ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus that he may dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.’ 25 But Abraham said, ‘Son, remember that in your lifetime you received your good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted and you are tormented. 26 And besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, so that those who want to pass from here to you cannot, nor can those from there pass to us.’ 27 “Then he said, ‘I beg you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father’s house, 28 for I have five brothers, that he may testify to them, lest they also come to this place of torment.’ 29 Abraham said to him, ‘They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.’ 30 And he said, ‘No, father Abraham; but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.’ 31 But he said to him, ‘If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rise from the dead.’ ” (Luke16:19-31NKJV)
Remarkably, this is effectively the only account we have in Scripture of experience in the afterlife: the account of the rich man and Lazarus, the text of which requires careful attention. It is generally taken to be a parable, although it us unusual for a person to be named (i.e. Lazarus) in such, so many, including the medieval Church, believe Jesus to be referring to real individuals. Although often utilized as such, the narrative is referring neither to Heaven nor Hell but to Hades, the place of the dead. That is an intermediate state between death and resurrection in which, according to Luke’s interpretation of Jesus’ teaching, disembodied spirits are nevertheless conscious and aware of either pain or comfort. They also clearly retain a memory of their past life (“Son, remember that in your lifetime” etc.)
Note carefully, the only stated criterion distinguishing these two men was that one had had a life of ease and comfort whilst the other had been poor and wretched (Lk16:25). It may be deduced (from vv27-31) that the rich man was suffering because of the way he had utilized his wealth; living wantonly whilst failing to show care and compassion for miserable beggars like Lazarus (with whom Jesus personally identifies – Mt25:45), yet no reason is given at all why Lazarus should be comforted after his death other than that he had experienced a life of poverty and sickness (Lk16:25). The redistributive and compensatory aspects of judgement at death are also emphasized in the letter of James who exhorts the oppressive rich to weep and howl for the miseries that are to come upon them (Ja5:1KJV). It is clear from subsequent verses that James is referring to the materially wealthy who obtained their wealth by defrauding and exploiting of the poor. James (as ever) is reflecting the teaching of Christ, who had other words of warning for the well-to-do:
Alas for you who are rich: you are having your consolation now. Alas for you who have plenty to eat now: you shall go hungry. Alas for you who are laughing now: you shall mourn and weep (Lk6:24,25).
understand this to be partly a question of redistributive justice but that it
also relates to the role and necessity of human suffering (salting) explained
in the theodicy (chapter seven of my book).
The Law and
In pleading for Lazarus to be raised from the dead so as to warn the his five brothers of their impending doom if they do not change their ways, Abraham chides the rich man that as Jews his brothers should be acquainted with “Moses and the Prophets”, an underlying principle of which being the need to care for the needy – loving one’s neighbour as oneself. Those who do not believe that to be at the Law’s heart should take heed to the apostle Paul: “The entire Law is fulfilled in keeping this one command “Love your neighbour as yourself” (Gal5:14). For the commandments, “You shall not commit adultery,” “You shall not murder,” “You shall not steal,” “You shall not bear false witness,” “You shall not covet,” and if there is any other commandment, they are all summed up in this saying, namely, “You shall love your neighbour as yourself.” (Rom13:9)
But in a sense who needs the Law to determine these matters? – they are intuitive to every human heart. For as hinted at above and suggested within this parable, the wellbeing of the human spirit when the body dies is not determined by one’s religion or lack of it but by one’s dealings with one’s fellows (likewise the final judgement passage in Matthew25 – note religious faith is nowhere mentioned). However, religious faith and a living relationship with Jesus Christ certainly plays a part in the soul’s eternal destiny, in particular who are to be the co-inheritors with the Lord of Glory at the resurrection of the dead? “Fellowship of the Secret”* explains all, or at least as much as Scripture has revealed.
Whoever does not bear his cross and come after Me cannot be My
disciple.28 Forwhich of you, intending to build a tower, does not sit down first and count the cost, whether he has enough
to finish it—29 lest, after he has laid the foundation, and is not able to finish,
all who see it begin to mock
him,30 saying, ‘This man began to build and was not able to finish’?31 Or what king, going to make war against another king, does not sit
down first and consider whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him who
comes against him with twenty thousand?32 Or else, while the other is still a great way off, he sends a
delegation and asks conditions of peace.33 So likewise, whoever of youdoes not
forsake all that he has cannot be My disciple. (Luke14:27-33NKJV)
It may not be the emphasis that comes across from many pulpits these days but Jesus tells His would-be disciples carefully to evaluate the cost of discipleship, like someone intending to build a tower or a king about to go to war. This implies substantially more than obtaining Church membership, receiving a sacrament, making a profession of faith or reciting a prayer; it is the assessment to be made by those who are to enter pilgrimage as a learner of the Christ. And such who are called, chosen and faithful will be those who are ultimately fitted for Kingdom service in eternal partnership with the One before Whom every knee must bow once He is revealed as Lord of all.
That will have been the context of the resurrection and imperishable crown for which Paul strove and disciplined his body like an athlete so as not to be disqualified (1Cor9:24-27). It requires God’s grace for sure but also personal self-discipline and effort – “Strive to enter (the Kingdom of God) by the narrow gate, for many I say to you will seek to enter and will not be able” says Jesus. The irony is that those who take up the challenge of the gospel and in Paul’s words, “aim for glory and honour and immortality by persevering in good works so as to obtain eternal life” (Rom2:7) will find that as they take the Master’s yoke upon them and learn from Him, He is gentle and lowly of heart, and they will find rest for their souls. Even from an earthly, material perspective, Jesus indicates they will gain “a hundredfold” more than they have sacrificed in service for the Kingdom (Mt19:29). It should also be evident from Jesus’ illustrations and his “narrow gate/broad road” language that this is not to be the destiny of the majority. How such an indication aligns with Scripture’s insistence that God wishes to reconcile all redeemable humanity to Himself is set out in my book*.
*For a free PDF or to purchase the paperback go HERE
31 [On that very day some Pharisees came, saying to (Jesus), “Get out and depart from here, for Herod wants to kill You.” 32 And He said to them, “Go tell that fox, ‘Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.’ (Luke13:31-32 NKJV)
As referred to in the previous post, many ordinary Jews delighted in Jesus’ words and actions, but their leaders wanted Him dead or at least out of their hair. They tried to persuade the Teacher and Miracle-worker that if He remained in their territory King Herod would have Him killed. Jesus’ response is typically direct yet the analogy He uses in describing Herod as a fox is drawn from biblical sources. As in many agricultural circles, the fox does not receive a great press in the Bible. In Song of Solomon (2:15) the writer refers to the foxes that destroy the vines of tender grapes, referring either to problems that might arise within a loving relationship or as some think, more figuratively to false prophets who deceive God’s chosen people often depicted as God’s vineyard (e.g. Isaiah5). The latter is certainly the case in Ezekiel (13:4), Israel’s false prophets being described as “foxes in the desert”. Whatever else they may be foxes are inclined to be devious and destructive.
Yet Jesus is determined and confident that neither Herod nor the often equally devious Pharisees will thwart His purposes or destiny. He vows to continue to heal and cast out demons until the time comes for God’s purposes and indeed He Himself to be perfected (Greek teleioumai). Unlike the New King James Version quoted above some versions translate the last phrase in verse 32 along the lines that Jesus’ work will have been perfected (e.g. ERV), whereas parsing the Greek text affirms the writer to be indicating that it is Jesus Himself who will be perfected (i.e. made complete for purpose) through His work and by His suffering.
This may present a theological problem to some but seemingly not to the writer to the Hebrews. For He declares that “It was fitting for (Jesus), for whom are all things and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through suffering (Heb2:10NKJV). This speaks of a great mystery which I examine in my book*, pertaining as it does to the purpose of suffering for humanity as a whole within God’s munificent purposes for His creation.
The Fellowship of the Secret – a free PDF available HERE
The Lord then answered (the ruler of the synagogue) and said, e]“Hypocrite! Does not each one of you on the Sabbath loose his ox or donkey from the stall, and lead it away to water it? 16 So ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan has bound—think of it—for eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath?” 17 And when He said these things, all His adversaries were put to shame; and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by Him. (Luke 13:15-17NKJV)
study website comments on this passage “The words imply the belief that there was another source than
mere bodily disease for the infirmity–in part, at least, the belief that all
disease–or very many forms of it–is directly or indirectly traceable to the power of the Enemy”.
My sentiments exactly, and as the writer to the Hebrews affirms, Satan’s realm and authority extends to death itself (Heb2:14). The biology and outworking of viruses, cancers and the like is ingeniously malevolent. Who or what is behind it? Ultimately our sovereign God is behind everything but in this case some distance removed. For extraordinary as it seems, His arch-enemy and ours has been granted substantial authority in the affairs of this world in the current age, which is why Jesus designated him “archon tou kosmou” – prince of the world order (Jn12:31), in which sickness and death along with what Paul refers to as spiritual wickedness in high places are a present reality (Eph6:12). Contrary to the wishful thinking of some, that is and will continue to be the case until Jesus returns in glory; that in spite of the fact that He has already done everything necessary (through His Passion) to defeat the realm of evil and death, at least in principle (Jn12:31-32). The reason such a regime continues for the present is one of the themes of “The Fellowship of the Secret” (a free PDF is available HERE).
My other observation on this short passage pertains to the last verse (17). The multitudes, who will predominantly have been Jewish rejoiced in Jesus’ teaching and practice concerning the Sabbath as a day not just for worship and relaxation but for doing good. Their religious leaders on the other hand appeared to understand the latter with regard to the welfare of their own working animals but not their fellow human beings as Jesus so effectively pointed out – to the shame of the leaders and the delight of the masses. It again highlights that it was primarily the religious leaders of the Jews who facilitated Satan’s plot to destroy the Prince of Life and Glory, albeit as ever, even this was according to “the definite plan and foreknowledge of God” (Acts2:23).
And as (Jesus) spoke, a certain Pharisee asked Him to dine with him. So He went in and sat down to eat. 38 When the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that He had not first washed before dinner. 39 Then the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees make the outside of the cup and dish clean, but your inward part is full of greed and wickedness. 40 “Foolish ones! Did not He who made the outside make the inside also? 41 “But rather give alms of such things as you have; then indeed all things are clean to you. 42 “But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs, and pass by justice and the love of God. These you ought to have done, without leaving the others undone (Luke 11:37-42NKJV)
More telling words from Jesus as recorded by Luke. As usual I have highlighted the phrases that particularly came to my attention following my renewed perspective on the Bible’s teaching that resulted in writing “The Fellowship of the Secret” *. Previously such passages had confused if not positively contradicted my understanding of the gospel but now they make better sense. In this narrative, the Lord is using the idea of cleaning the inside and outside of dishes to teach that a person’s heart is more important than what appears on the surface–whereas the Pharisees got it the wrong way round, as many people tend to do. Jesus is warning us to be less concerned about “the outside” and give more importance to “the inside” – not least in the practice of religion.
Giving alms to cleanse the soul
Almsgiving in the proper sense means realizing the needs of others and letting them share in one’s own goods. The Greek word for alms (ἐλεημοσύνη) is derived from ἔλεος meaning compassion or mercy, which implies more than a mechanical act of donating or tithing. It may be a theologically alien concept to many (including myself in the past) that almsgiving can cleanse the soul or cover sin, but not to Jesus Christ (v41) or indeed his lead disciple (cf. 1Pet4:8). The Pharisees had meticulously tithed herbs according to the requirements of Torah but had neglected vastly more important issues: social justice and “the love of God” (v42). I have come to understand the latter phrase as a genitive of origin. It refers not so much to God’s love for us (a fact, but not the context here) or even ours for Him (hopefully true but only half the story); it pertains rather to the impartation of the divine quality of love (cf. Jn17:26) engrafted by the Spirit such that we come to love others more as God loves them (cf. 1Jn2:5). That is more clearly indicated where John refers a few verses later in that passage to those who are worldly not having “the love of the Father within them” (1Jn2:15). It is in the context of partaking of the divine nature by which we come to possess more of what God possesses, especially holiness aligned with love; God being love and thrice holy.
The Pharisees, or at least the ones Jesus was addressing, were religious for sure, but they failed to grasp the inner meaning and purpose of the religion JHWE had instituted for the good of their souls and the social wellbeing of the people they led: intended to be a pattern for the society of God’s inaugurated kingdom on Earth.
(Jesus) said to His
disciples, “Let these words sink into your ears; for the Son of Man is
going to be delivered into the hands of men.” But (the disciples) did not understand this
statement, and it was concealed from them so that they would not perceive
it; and they were afraid to ask Him about this statement (Lk9:44-45NASB).
It’s a theme I constantly refer to for in my experience many, including those who regard themselves as Bible-believing Christians, are unaware of its significance. For a key to unravelling the mystery of God’s providential intentions towards His earthly creation (cf. Rev10) and the historical errors concerning it is to recognize that even Jesus’ closest disciples were not aware that their Messiah was destined to die and be resurrected (see also Lk18:33-34 & Mt16:22; 17:22-23). It re-affirms the point made in my earlier post concerning the “gospel of the kingdom” and the fact that that particular mission statement cannot have incorporated any soteriology pertaining to the Cross.
Of course the apostolic writers and the churches founded by them have rightly focused on the latter, but such could not have been contained within “this gospel of the Kingdom” that Jesus was referring to in the Olivet discourse (Mt24:14 Greek), for that same “gospel” had been preached by His disciples (Mt10:7-8) whom Matthew and Luke affirm were at the time clueless concerning their Master’s future Passion or its purpose.
This simple incontrovertible observation has radical implications: it nullifies the fearsome Augustine’s proposal that people in Old Testament times were condemned to Hell except they had “believed in the incarnation, passion and resurrection of Christ as a future event” [a]. Nor, referring back to Genesis could righteous Abel have been “anticipating the Passion” when he sacrificed an animal whilst his brother offered the dregs of his fruit harvest. Cain happened to be a fruit farmer, Abel tended livestock (Gen4:2); but comparing scripture with scripture the key point is that Abel’s offering had been accepted because his works were righteous; Cain AND his offering were rejected because his works were evil (1Jn3:11,12). The one was a child of God, so feared His Creator (i.e. had faith) and did what he knew to be right, the other was described by the apostle John as wicked and satanic (Greek:ek tou ponerou), derived from the Evil One (1Jn3:12). Cain as the first man to be born of woman was the archetype of what Jesus, John and Paul refer to as children of the devil, whom, to put it mildly, are to be ignominiously dealt with at Christ’s coming (cf. Rom9:21,22; 2Thes1:8; Mt13:49; Mt15:13; ref: Enoch1:1). Similarly, Abel will not have “got saved” by anticipating Calvary, for I say again, even Christ’s disciples were ignorant of His future Passion or its purpose. Rather, Abel was justified within the eluded universal covenant of life (explained in FOTS* ch.2).
So the Cain and Abel story is primarily concerned with the reprobation of the elder brother, who showed himself to be a God-hating homicidal maniac. He became “cursed from the earth” (Gen4:11 – note the “NOW”) and alienated from God’s loving care (Gen4:14 – note “THIS DAY”), i.e. his reprobation was affirmed after killing his brother and was not directly related to his offering (cf. the mystery of evil – FOTS* ch.6).
Thankfully, Cain’s fate is not the fate of man by nature, for man is “in Adam”, not Cain. Natural man’s condition is nevertheless perilous, for his God-given soul/spirit (that which returns to God at death) inherits what Paul refers to as “the body of this death” (somatos tou thanatou toutou Rom7:24) from his parents, ultimately from Adam. Paul’s “this” (toutou) is important as it refers to the “death” Paul is describing in the passage (Rom7:14-24), i.e. what the person he was depicting was currently experiencing; not the fact that he was mortal or was “to go to hell when he dies” as many understand the matter. As a result of such Pauline anthropological dualism (which Augustine dismissed, partly as a result of his wariness concerning the heretical cosmic dualism expounded by Manes), most people by nature aspire to do good and genuinely admire noble qualities such as compassion, generosity, bravery and integrity in others. Indeed, in view of his conscience (which fails to function in the likes of Cain), fallen man exhibits by nature some of the qualities prescribed in God’s Law becoming a law for himself (Rom2:14,15 cf. Greek). At the same, there is within man another law or guiding principle “within his members” (i.e. his physical senses as processed through the brain) “warring against the law in his mind (the conscience Rom2:15), bringing him into captivity to the law of sin (concupiscence) which is in his members (Rom7:22-24). Such is the nature of “original sin” or Pauline “death”, and unless remedied, it radically damages the relationship with God for which man was created – hence the Passion, hence the Gospel.
It is remedied in the present (albeit for a minority) by responding to that gospel and experiencing sacramental participation with Christ (Jn6:55-57). By such means of grace allied with corporal discipline (1Cor9:27), those who are called, chosen and faithful are “saved” from the corrupting influences of their disordered senses, becoming “free indeed to serve the living God” even whilst inhabiting Paul’s “body of death”; their souls being progressively healed so as to be fitted to share an immediate and right royal inheritance with the Son of God when He comes to establish His eternal Kingdom (cf. Rom8:17-23). As Paul jubilantly referred to this mystery, for the Christian it becomes a case of“Christ in you, the hope of glory!” (Col1:26,27NKJV)
[a] Augustine: “Against two letters of the Pelagians” Book III Chap. 11
* i.e. The Fellowship of the Secret – free PDF HERE