11 Therefore remember that previously you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called “Uncircumcision” by the so-called “Circumcision” which is performed in the flesh by human hands— 12 remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the people of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who previously were far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ {Eph2:11-13)

Paul is here reminding his Gentile readers in Ephesus of their spiritual condition before their conversion. This, then, must be true of everyone by nature, for all can be said to be “strangers to the covenants of promise”. By Paul’s reckoning, all outside that covenant are “separate from Christ”, “excluded from the Israel of God”, “without hope and without God in the world”. It sounds bleak and harsh, almost Augustinian – but pause for a moment. Who was the first man to be excluded from the covenant of promise? It was a certain “Ishmael”. He was Abraham’s first-born son no less – for whom the father of faith pleaded to God in prayer, “Oh that Ishmael might prosper before You!” (Gen17:18). Abraham’s prayer was answered, well sort of: “And God said to Abraham: Sarah your wife shall bear you a son, and you shall call his name Isaac, and I will establish my covenant with him for a perpetual covenant, and with his seed after him. As for Ishmael I have also heard you. Behold, I will bless him, and increase, and multiply him exceedingly: he shall beget twelve chiefs, and I will make him a great nation. But my covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bring forth this time next year”.

God’s redemptive plan for the world was undoubtedly to be focused around Christ. However, chronologically speaking, the first stage was to establish a people with whom the Creator would especially relate, and that was initiated by the call of Abraham. Such people would still be in sinful flesh, so they were to be provided with laws “to deter offences” and so that they might live, behave and worship in accordance with God’s will. But what of the rest of humanity? Moses later provided a clue: “Look, as JHWE my God commanded me, I have taught you laws and customs for you to observe in the country in which you are to take possession. Keep them and put them into practice and other peoples will admire your wisdom and prudence. Once they know what all these laws are, they will exclaim “No other people are as wise and prudent as this great nation Israel” (Deut4:5,6). So the children of promise were intended to be a light and bridgehead of salvation to the rest of the world. In God’s own words Isaac’s seed were “My own special treasure among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine – you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” (Ex19:5-6). That is the context of the “children of promise” in both the Old and New Testaments (cf. 1Pet2:9). But those of the Old Testament would be the seed of Abraham’s second son Isaac rather than Ishmael.  Similarly for the New Covenant in Christ’s blood, “You, (Galatian Christians), like Isaac, are the children of promise (Gal4:28).

This again affirms the privileged and exclusive nature of the covenants of promise, both in the Old and New Testaments. Those such as Ishmael did not exclude themselves by their actions (unlike Cain with respect to the eluded Universal Covenant of life). Ishmael and the other families of the earth had been excluded by divine decree. Likewise, those included such as baby Isaac, followed by children born and baptized by their Christian parents, or adults given the gift of faith to trust in Christ as Saviour (Eph2:8; Jn6:44) will have done nothing to deserve the privilege of becoming “the children of promise”. Yet that is what they are, and as I have been emphasizing in recent posts their election is by grace alone. What a monstrous travesty of justice and providential oversight it would be if the one group were to be assured of eternal bliss in heaven whilst the souls of those God had wilfully overlooked faced eternal misery. Yet that is what I (in the past) and so many Christians still believe to be the Good News of God, the fruit of Christ’s suffering, the scope of His saving work, the constraints of compassion from the God who is Love. It’s an outrageous maligning of divine providence, and largely the consequence of Augustine’s dire misreading of aspects of St Paul’s teaching, carried forward by the Protestant Reformers in their theology of sovereign grace. Yet as with the broader mystery of evil, it is a misconception which God intended should not be brought to light until the end of the age. [The relevant prophecies in Revelation and the Book of Enoch were highlighted in the previous post].

Notwithstanding such misconceptions of divine benevolence, those outside the covenant of promise were, according to Paul, “devoid of hope and without God in the world” (v12). But Paul was not saying there was no hope for them, rather that they did not personally possess “ἐλπίδα”, i.e.  hope, expectation, or assurance regarding the future – for example, that they would ever see those they had loved and lost again, let alone have a joyous relationship with God through eternity. As for being “without God in the world”, that is referring to the breakdown in the relationship that Adam and Eve had enjoyed with God before their disobedience. It is the “death” that Paul spoke of in Romans7 brought about by “the body of this death” concerning which I have already written much in these posts. For note, they were without God in the world. That is a temporary situation pertaining their soul’s inhabitation of “the body of this death” within a world order (κόσμος) still under the influence of Satan. Both encumbrances shall cease at physical death or when Christ returns, whichever is the sooner. The prince of this world’s final demise and “the redemption of the body” (Rom8:23) will transform the situation, ultimately for all true humanity (Rom8:21).

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Related post: Fourteen in the bible   &   God's secret plan


But God, being rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us, even when we were dead in our wrongdoings, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved), and raised us up with Him, and seated us with Him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, so that in the ages to come He might show the boundless riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. For by grace you have been saved through faith; and this is not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not a result of works, so that no one may boast. 10 For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand so that we would walk in them. [Eph2:4-10]

A favourite passage for many Christians and the last two verses were the text of my very first sermon during a brief period as a Baptist minister in the late 1990s. As to my subsequent spiritual journey, I referred to it in a recent post concerning the number fourteen. For that number has been particularly significant in my life, especially in the faith context. And it was fourteen years between two extraordinary spiritual encounters that transformed my theological understanding. Its outworking will be evident in these posts in which I am slowly progressing through the New Testament, whilst the full picture has already been set out in The Little Book of Providence, a seven-part biblical synopsis freely available as a PDF download.

I say, “a favourite passage”, perhaps especially for Evangelicals given that Paul twice in these verses states, “by grace you have been saved”. The problem for many Evangelicals (and others) is what Paul goes on to write in verse 8, although it was also implicit in verse 5. We are “saved by faith” (that’s fine), but such faith is “not of oneself it is a gift of God”. Not for the first time, Paul is affirming that whether one is a Christian is a matter of God’s choice – man by nature is incapable of responding positively to the gospel unless divinely enabled to do so. That is not to be determined from this passage alone, it is the consistent teaching of Paul in his several references to predestination (e.g. Rom8:29-30; Eph1:5&11). And as the Ephesians passage under consideration makes clear, such predestination cannot be referring to God “foreseeing who would come to believe”, for that would be election based on merit. For surely, denying oneself, taking up the cross and following Christ is a virtuous thing to do, whereas whether or not we come to faith is “a gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast” (v9). And the apostle was no maverick – he is affirming Jesus’ own teaching (Jn6:44) and that of the apostle John (1:13). So, am I returning to my Calvinistic roots? By no means – for whether an Evangelical is Calvinist or Arminian, the eschatology that results from their respective interpretations of the bible has providential implications far removed from that which Paul alludes to. That is summarized in Rom8:18-23 in which he identifies a rationale for “the Fall” (v20), the current state of affairs for creation as a whole (vv22-23) and an expectation of its final deliverance (v21).

Dealing firstly with Calvinism, the God who Apostle John describes as love personified and who “so loved the world that He sent His own Son” to rescue it is deemed wilfully to withhold the saving remedy from the bulk of the world’s inhabitants. Myriads of precious souls are to be regarded as collateral damage within God’s redemptive purposes in Christ. These are formularies that I meticulously adhered to for 28 years, believing that virtually everyone I had known outside my church circle, including all my known family, were destined for “a lost eternity”. That, I understood, was to pay for Adam’s disobedience and the depraved nature inherited from him. According to the “Institutes of Religion” that I at one time esteemed, it resulted in “all men’s thoughts, inclinations and efforts being corrupt and viscous”, whilst young infants according to Calvin were “odious and an abomination to God; their very natures being a seed-bed of sin” [Ref#1].

Moving on to Arminius, his theological proposals are perhaps more erudite and logically persuasive than I as a former Calvinist once gave him credit for. Nevertheless, they are still flawed and result in the same cosmic catastrophe, as well as more obviously doing violence to Paul’s teaching on election. Examining Wikipedia’s helpful analysis, Arminius’ solution to the free will/predestination conundrum is perhaps best summarized by the statement “that sinners who hear the gospel have the free will to accept or reject God’s offer of saving grace and that nobody is excluded by God from the possibility of salvation except those who freely exclude themselves”. I have highlighted where the problem lies on the providential front. Even if such an interpretation could be squared with Jn6:44 in particular, the more obvious point is that the very possibility of attaining salvation is restricted to those who hear the gospel, and a faithful account of it at that. Calvin’s incomprehensibly harsh cosmic Chess Master has been replaced by a seemingly incompetent, uncaring Overseer. For clearly, God has (at the least) permitted cultural and religious developments to proliferate in such a way that most Asian/Eastern people rarely have had the opportunity to hear such a gospel through the centuries. That it is not to mention the rest of the world prior to the 16th century Protestant Reformation, whose protagonists rightly affirmed that the means of salvation they were insisting upon were virtually unknown to the Catholic/Orthodox churches for the previous thousand years or more.

I cannot speak for others, but during my 28 years as an Evangelical I scarcely gave these historical realities any thought, which retrospectively appears extraordinary. Such doctrines, designed to provide peace and assurance for the individual, are thoroughly demeaning to our loving Creator’s providential care. And the notion that human beings are innately depraved, common to both Calvinism and Arminianism, distorts the true and observable nature of the human condition. For even in their fallen state, men and women are clearly capable of exercising kindness, compassion, charity and a measure of integrity. And as both Paul and John several times affirm, acts of compassion and kindness were central to the purpose of God’s laws for humanity. According to Paul, anyone who loves another has fulfilled the law (Rom13:10). Indeed, every commandment God has made for man can be summarized in one word – to LOVE your neighbour as yourself (Gal5:14). That accords with John: “Love is of God and everyone who exercises love is born of God and knows God, for God is love” (1Jn4:7). Yet no one is “saved” in the gospel sense unless they are born again of Spirit and water, whilst there is a third category who were never “born of God” in the first place (1Jn3:12; Acts13:10). Such are devoid of conscience and incapable of love in the ἀγάπη sense. They are serial liars and psychopaths, but not always in a criminal sense, some far from it (2Cor11:13-15).

In ecclesiological terms, a measure of doctrinal error (“the forsaking of wisdom”) and Spirit-grieving corruption has existed in the past, even within the true Apostolic Church; particularly so in the West during the Middle Ages. That resulted in a rebellion (“a man shall ascend”), a fragmentation (“the whole race of the chosen root shall be dispersed“), a break away movement established (“an apostate generation shall arise”). I believe this is alluded to in 2Thes2, but my quotes in brackets pertain to an extraordinary prophecy in the Book of Enoch – “The Apocalypse of Weeks” – setting out the chronology, albeit in symbolic terms [Enoch93:7-10]. It is all somewhat cryptic and is intended to be so, for whilst much was revealed (albeit symbolically) to John in Revelation regarding the Church’s future, there was one mystery that he was not permitted to write about. It is referred to in chapter ten, verses 4-7.

Regarding biblical hermeneutics, it largely boils down to the simple fact that what the bible means by salvation is not to be equated to the soul being saved from perdition. The soul’s immediate fate in the afterlife and when God’s Kingdom is fully realized at Christ’s coming is determined by the criterion Jesus sets out in in Mt25:31-46, a passage in which neither religion nor religious faith is mentioned. [I highlight “religious” for the sheep/goat parable does pertain to a form of faith as an earlier post explains]. Salvation, on the other hand, is the process which begins when those God chooses for His Son are cleansed from past sins in baptism, at the same time being delivered from the ravages of what Paul describes as “the body of this death”, thereby becoming free to serve the living God whilst in mortal flesh (cf. Rom6:4-6).

And there is a related point that Paul raises in this passage that is usually turned on its head. He writes that the Ephesians had been saved by faith and not a result of works (v9). So Paul is referring  to what had already happened to them – all will have been baptized, cleansed from their sin and spiritually empowered, but he well knows that not all shall persevere in the Faith. That process is by no means all of grace, it is dependent on the believer’s cooperation with grace, his effort and self-disciple. This has been covered in many of my earlier Pauline posts and will become still more apparent in Hebrews, James and Revelation. “All of grace” applies to election, not to the process by which we “work out our own salvation with fear and trembling”. And as Jesus constantly alludes to in Revelation, final glory depends on whether or not one “overcomes” (Rev2:7;2:11;2:17;2:26;3:5;3:12;3:21;21:7). He makes it clear that many, even within in the churches, shall not be found worthy to inherit the promises of Christ (Rev3:4).

Such ineffable privileges pertain to “the elect” who shall be corporately married to the Lamb and come to share His throne, not to the many more who demonstrate they are “of God” by evincing love as described above. Both categories shall receive infinitely better than they deserve. That will certainly be the result of grace, especially the fruit of Christ’s Passion which I have been showing avails at two levels: the forensic and participatory. Whilst the sins of the many are pardoned and propitiated (1Jn2:2), those who through obedience to the Faith participate in Christ’s Life and partake of His blood can have their consciences “cleansed from dead works to serve the living God” (Heb9:14; Rom5:10). As Paul intimates in this Ephesians passage, the Christian, in a mystical sense, is already “raised up with God and seated with Him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus so that in the ages to come He might show the boundless riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ” (v7).

So, whilst God in Christ has elected a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession, to proclaim the excellencies of Him who are called out of darkness into His marvellous light (1Pet2:9), “the boundless riches of His grace and kindness” Paul is writing about here are just that – boundless. Such magnanimity pertains to His very nature. This joyful vista will become more apparent once God’s providential purposes towards His whole creation have been apprehended.

Ref#1: Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion – Second Book chap. 1 para 8

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Ephesians 2

1 You were at one time dead in your offences and sins, in which you previously walked in accordance with the world order (pertaining to) the current age and of the prince of the power of the air, the spirit currently working in the sons of disobedience. Among them we too all previously lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of its thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath, just as the rest. 4But God…! [Eph2:1-4]

What Paul means by “dead”

If you have been following my posts, you will know what I believe Paul to mean by non-Christians being DEAD in their sins. It is not referring to “damnation”, which pertains to those dead in both flesh and spirit such that they are devoid of love (Jude1:12 cf. 1Jn3:12; 1Jn4:7). Rather, it relates to what the apostle had written in Rom7 regarding “the body of this death” that resulted in a conflict between the spiritual essence (“spirit”, “heart”, “inner man”) implanted by God at birth and what Paul and Peter both describe as our earthly “vessel” or “tent”, being the intellectual entity (body and brain) procreated from our parents, ultimately from fallen Adam that the soul/spirit temporarily inhabits. By nature, the instincts of the latter overpower the former, and the “dead works” that result defile the conscience. That leads to an inability rightly to relate to or serve the living God, being man’s true purpose and destiny (Heb9:14). As that verse also affirms, the only solution to the predicament is the application of the blood of Christ (earlier post).

The mind of the flesh

In reviewing the Ephesians’ former lives Paul refers to the flesh and its thoughts (v3); not as many bibles translate it “the flesh and the mind” – for διανοιῶν is plural [see parsing]. “The mind” [Greek: νόησις] would anyway be ambiguous for we have two minds, the one pertaining to the flesh that Paul is referring to here (i.e. the brain) and the mind of the spirit/inner man/heart, being that memory-retaining intellectual spiritual entity that departs the body at physical death (cf. Lk16:25). It is a point in which I am necessarily pedantic and repetitive for it is crucial to understanding Paul, especially the much misunderstood second half of Rom7. “Crucial” because it pertains to the nature and consequences of “original sin” and the very purpose of gospel salvation (cf. Rom7:24-25).

Jesus expressed the same concept more starkly (albeit metaphorically) in terms of physical dismemberment. The telling phrase in His sermon on the mount being “if your right arm/eye offends YOU, hack it off / pluck it out” (Mt5:29-30). The “you” is the true/inner/spiritual self; the offending eye and hand are the instincts of the bodily members as processed through the brain. Peter was more succinct: “Abstain from fleshly lusts that war against the soul” (1Pet2:11). Note the fleshly lusts oppose the soul, they are not derived from it.

Satan’s temporary domain

Paul also refers here to the current age and the world order pertaining to it. “Prince of the power of the air” is simply referring to Satan and the physical atmospheric realm (air) in which human beings subsist – as opposed to Jesus’ current locale being “the heavenly places” (previous post). The extraordinary current state of affairs, concerning which I expounded in an earlier post is that Satan rather than Jesus is “ὁ ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου” (literally, chief of the world system). Through His Passion, the Latter has already assured the former’s demise (Jn12:31), but the final solution has yet to be implemented, involving as it does not only Jesus but His people (1Thes3:13), some of whom have yet to be recruited.

Children of wrath

In terms of final judgement, we can be assured God will take account of man’s hostile, satanically influenced environment and the inherited weakness of His flesh, for it is the Son of Man who will be doing the judging (Jn5:22). The Creator is nevertheless angered and aggrieved at the sight of human self-indulgence, violence, and immorality (v3). Given that man has an immortal soul, being by nature “the children of wrath” would not appear to bode well for humanity’s eternal prospects given that proportionally few have been delivered from this predicament.

Thankfully, Paul’s extraordinary statement in Rom8:20-21 [Ref#1] indicates otherwise, presenting the Fall, its consequences, and especially its origins and purpose in a different light. Frankly, Paul’s assertion here is likely to confound many, but hopefully it should make a lot more sense after a reading of The Little Book of Providence. Paul of course was well acquainted with these matters and so is quickly able to dispel the gloom. He does so in the passage immediately following. It is introduced by two of the most propitious words in the bible: “BUT GOD….”!  (v4 – next post).

Ref#1: “For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself also will be set free from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God. [Rom8:20-21NASB]

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God raised Christ from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places,  far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come.  And He put all things in subjection under His feet and made Him head over all things for the church which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills all in all (Eph1:20-23)

So, writes Paul, Christ has been seated at the right hand of God, far above all rule, authority power and dominion – not only in the current age but in the one that shall succeed it. No surprise there – what is staggering and scarcely thought through by many, is the implication to the church’s destiny, both in view of what Paul is writing here and how she is described in Revelation. The apostle describes the church as “the body of Christ”, or on one occasion precisely in this context, simply as “Christ” (1Cor12:12). In Revelation the church is Christ’s corporate bride or “wife” (19:7 &21:9) whom Christ Himself informs us shall share His throne (3:21).

I am not primarily emphasizing these matters to glorify the church, though it is an inescapable fact that someone chosen to wed a king must attain glory, how much more the body of women and men chosen to act as consort to the King of Kings? Rather, my priority, as ever, is to magnify the scope of God’s benign providence. For whilst it must always be the case that Christ presides over His Church, that is not the point Paul is making in these verses. Rather, the apostle is indicating that Christ is Head over all things for or to the Church (v22). ἐκκλησίᾳ (church) is dative not genitive. And it is what is known as a dative of advantage; the rule and authority Paul is describing Christ as having is not so much over the church but is on her behalf.

In view of Who Christ is and What He is – the One by Whom and for Whom all things were created, He would scarcely need the help of anyone to preside over His creation. But He, or rather His Father, has determined that His beloved Son should not reign alone. God has given some of His own children over to Christ (Jn17:6 – note wording very carefully). The Father has chosen a bride for His Son, and Paul here depicts her as His body, “the fullness of Him who fills all in all”(v23).

So, in terms of the providential context, it should be obvious that Christ with His church/bride/body must have something and someone to rule over in the age to come – they cannot “all be in hell” as I once believed as an amillennialistic Evangelical. [I have been systematically adducing from Scripture that there are not two but three soteriological categories – the most recent post in the context of the age to come is HERE.] As for subsequent ages: “Things that the eye has not seen nor the ear heard nor have not entered the human heart have been prepared for those who love Him” (1Cor2:9). But what can be deduced from what Scripture has already disclosed is that the heavens and the earth shall one day be filled with the glory of God – and that Christ with His “bride” shall take precedence within the arrangements. For “those who are to receive royal authority are the saints of the Most High, and their kingship will be for ever and ever and ever” (Dan7:18). Head and body like Husband and wife cannot be separated as long as they both shall live – likewise their domain.

Such munificent providence cannot be asserted from these observations alone – the matter needs to be determined from Scripture as a whole. I believe this to have been achieved in “The Little Book of Providence”. Such writing was not intended (or in my case barely capable) of being an academic work. Whilst scholarship is undoubtedly useful in determining biblical truth, theological insight pertains as much to the heart as it does to the brain. Hence Paul’s prayer for the Ephesians just a few verses earlier and precisely in this context (previous post): “that the eyes of your heart might be enlightened to understand the nature of the hope of God’s calling and the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints (v18).

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Firstly, note the seemingly strange language of Paul’s prayer – that the “eyes of your heart” might be enlightened (v18). Why does Paul not simply pray that God would enlighten their mind? Although  this is seemingly only a passing comment on Paul’s part it reaffirms what I have been indicating – that man possesses two minds. The one pertains to the flesh, the other of the spirit. The one survives physical death as an intellectual memory-retaining entity (cf. Lk16:25), the other is the physical brain that is to be buried or incinerated. Such psychological duality should be obvious to all who believe in an after-life but for many Christians, including myself in the past, that reality does not tend to register. Not so Paul: “For I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members” (Rom7:23). As the passage as a whole makes clear, Paul is contrasting the law or guiding principles of the inner man, “heart” or spirit with that of the physical brain that processes the bodily senses. Such duality is not generic (i.e. spirit good, material bad) but pertains to the immediate source of the God-given soul/spirit on the one hand and the procreated vessel it inhabits on the other. It pertains to the Fall and its anthropological consequences. Here in Ephesians the apostle is aware that the brain per se does not readily receive divine enlightenment; such Life-giving wisdom is processed by the mind or “eyes” of the heart or spirit, which in the case of the Christian (and only the Christian) has been quickened such that it can relate to and communicate with God, even whilst inhabiting Paul’s “body of this death” (Rom7:24). More fundamentally this has application to whether or not one can apprehend the gospel. It is why only those who have been divinely enabled are drawn to Christ (Jn6:44) – for even having heard the gospel, our brains (the mind of the flesh) will not rightly perceive such spiritual matters.

Paul’s prayer for the Ephesian Christians is that “the eyes of your heart may be enlightened, so that you will know what is the hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints and what is the boundless greatness of His power toward us who believe” (vv18-19). In terms of the gospel, the recipients of his letter’s spiritual eyes had been enlightened – they were already Christians. But there is much more for the believer to discover during his earthly pilgrimage, especially concerning the extraordinary privileges and responsibilities that he has inherited and the glories awaiting him providing he perseveres in the Faith.

But regrettably there is a more fundamental dimension to spiritual enlightenment. It will not so much have applied to the original recipients of Paul’s letter but is very much an issue today. That is whether the gospel we have received and acted upon is the truth or whether it has been perverted through heresy or apostacy. For myself I have been shown that what I understood to be the gospel for the first 28 years of my Christian life, whilst containing truth was far from “the whole truth and nothing but the truth”. As I have explained in recent posts, the interpretation of the bible I am setting out in these Facebook blogs formalized in The Little Book of Providence is the result of two extraordinary spiritual encounters that turned my earlier (Calvinist Evangelical) understanding on its head.

Whilst humanly speaking such enlightenment was facilitated by the opportunity I had at the time to study the bible full time whilst training for Christian ministry, I know such a seismic shift in my understanding could not have occurred without supernatural intervention. I am clear that such intervention was from the Holy Spirit in view of the extraordinary phenomena with which it was associated. The blessed and holy nature of its Source was affirmed to me by the nature of its immediate consequences: my adoration of God, His Christ and my love for broader humanity were vastly enlarged – overwhelmingly and tearfully so during the period of the encounter. More objectively, the new interpretation of the bible I came to resolved what had previously been intractable tensions or seeming contradictions. Scripture became thoroughly coherent: the New Testament could be reconciled with the Old, whilst Paul no longer contradicted Jesus, James or himself for that matter.

My prayer for those reading these posts and especially any who have downloaded or purchased my book is that the eyes of your heart might be enlightened – to discern the nature of this writing. Is it wilful deception, personal delusion or the fulfilment of prophecy concerning what Scripture foretold should be disclosed in the very last days? The references to such a disclosure are cryptically alluded to in canonical Scripture (e.g. Rev10) and more overtly so in the Book of Enoch. As previously considered, that was an inspired book quoted in the bible (Jude 14&15), containing teaching that was never intended for the Church throughout her earthly pilgrimage. Rather, as its opening verse suggests, it was written to bless the elect and the righteous who will be living in the day of tribulation when all the wicked and godless are to be removed”.

Book of Enoch prophecy HERE 

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 13 After listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation, having also believed, you were sealed in (Christ) with the Holy Spirit of the promise, 14 who is a first instalment of our inheritance with respect to the redemption of the acquired possession, to the praise of His glory (Eph1:13-14)

Peter had affirmed in his first epistle that the Church is “a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession” (1Pet2:9)”. Paul is saying much the same here: God is in the process of establishing a people for Himself. These are those who having had the opportunity to hear the gospel, believe and act upon it and are accordingly sealed with the Holy Spirit (v13). Yet mysteriously the language that follows (v14) pertains more to a business agreement than a theological statement! The Holy Spirit is described as a “deposit” or first instalment “with respect to the redemption (or full ransom payment) for the acquired possession”. As to what the final instalment might be, Paul referred to it earlier when he wrote about human suffering, at the same time strongly hinting that God’s benign providential purposes are far broader: “The creation itself is to be set free from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God. All creation is currently suffering the pains of childbirth; and not only they but we who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we groan within ourselves waiting eagerly for our adoption as God’s children, being. the redemption of our body (Rom8:21-23). As I have been outlining, the source of man’s problem with sin is not the God-given soul but the temporary procreated intellectual vessel it inhabits (cf. Rom7:24). Only when that has been replaced by a heavenly body shall our salvation have achieved its apotheosis.

The mysterious transactional nature of Paul’s language in Ephesians and elsewhere pertains to the Fall and Satan’s role in it. A related mystery is the fact that Satan was seemingly rewarded for his treachery by being given authority over the kingdoms of the earth (Lk4:6). And just as Christ gained a people for Himself (Jn17:6), Satan was granted facility to harvest human souls, a mystery we have been considering in recent posts (cf. Mt15:13; 1Jn3:12; cf. Gen3:15). It should be obvious such arrangements could only be at God’s behest (cf. Rom8:20-21). They relate to the fact that the purpose of gospel salvation and God’s plans for broader humanity is not to restore humanity to Edenic innocence but to raise it to divinity. Indeed, Christians, being those whom James describes as the first fruits of God’s creation (1:18) already partake of the divine nature and are to be adopted into the bosom of God’s family as corporate Bride to His Son. This in turn relates to the fact that Satan’s treacherous behaviour and impious rule resulted in the need for God’s Word to be incarnated, suffer, die and be resurrected. Both players (Christ and Satan) have a vital part in this extraordinary plan which was motivated by God’s love and gracious intentions towards humanity. For human beings had been created “a little lower than the angels” but following the Word’s incarnation as a Man, that shall no longer be the case.

Evidence for this hierarchical re-ordering is provided in Heb2:7-9 whilst a clue to the rationale behind it is the succeeding verse (10): “It was appropriate for Him for Whom are all things and through Whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory to perfect the Originator of their salvation through sufferings”. Those who can grasp the implications of what the writer to the Hebrews is intimating here regarding suffering in the context of the Fall and Gospel are close to apprehending the final mystery of God, the ultimate theodicy (cf. Rev10vv4&7). Thanks to a personal revelation from the Holy Spirit, further insights have been provided in “The Little Book of Providence”. It is a seven-part biblical synopsis that, as should be evident from this series of posts, involves a radical reworking of much traditional Western theology. If you have followed through the (Enoch) links in the previous post, you will see why I believe such an interpretive amelioration to be itself a fulfilment of prophecy.

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Paul’s letter to the Ephesians

 In Christ we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our wrongdoings, according to the riches of His grace which He superabundantly provided to us. Through wisdom and insight He made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He set forth in Him, 10 regarding an administration pertaining to the fullness of the times in which all things would be brought together into Christ, things in the heavens and things on the earth. 11 In Him we also have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of Him who works all things in accordance with the plan of His will, 12 to the end that we being the first to hope in Christ would be to the praise of His glory. (Eph1:7-12)

The theological content of this passage might be summed up in one word: Wow! THIS is the “Good news of great joy that shall be to all people” that I quoted from Luke’s Gospel in the previous post. If only it were understood. Not that I claim to be aware of the detail of how all this is to come about. By “all this coming about” I am referring to Paul’s assertion that at the end of the current age all things in heaven and earth are to be brought under Christ’s administration (Greek: οἰκονομίαν). Verse 10 is not referring to those currently “in Christ” as some translations imply (e.g. KJV) but the fact that all things in heaven and earth shall be brought under Christ’s headship (e.g. AMPC bible). Such an interpretation both does justice to the Greek text but also to Paul’s broader teaching of Christ being “the firstborn of all creation by Whom all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones, or dominions, or rulers, or authorities—all things have been created through Him AND FOR HIM” (Col1:15-16)

Thus, the Word of God who became incarnate through the Virgin Mary might aptly be described as the Cosmic Christ. As just stated, the detail pertaining to how precisely this shall be enacted in the age to come has not been disclosed. What has been made clear to me in this context is the following outline.

In terms of humanity, whilst all shall be brought under Christ’s headship, not all shall have the same status or destiny. It is one thing to be under Christ’s rule, another to be His corporate Bride (Rev19:7) sharing His throne (Rev3:21). Such privileges are for those who have prepared for them whilst in mortal flesh. Paul refers to them in this passage: “those who have obtained an inheritance having been predestined according to the purpose of Him who works all things in accordance with the plan of His will to the end that being the first to hope in Christ we would be to the praise of His glory (vv11-12). Note how Paul refers to the elect as “the first to hope in Christ” (Greek: τοὺς προηλπικότας). The implications should be obvious, many more shall eventually do so, but not all. For some, the first effect of “coming under the administration of Christ” shall be to be their ignominious removal from the earth [note 1]. These are the “wicked and godless” (Is11:4; cf. Enoch1:1), the “ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ” (1Jn3:12), the seed of Satan (Mt13:38). In terms of the last reference (wheat and tares parable), Jesus affirms the field is the world, not the Church as many try to make out – the tares therefore cannot be referring to “the unconverted” but those who like Cain were “of the Evil One” from birth. Tares cannot become wheat; rather, some of the soiled wheat is being salvaged (“saved”) for immediate utility come harvest time.

In the context of those who shall be living at the Parousia: “Christ shall be glorified in His saints and be marvelled at by those that believe on that day, just as our testimony among you was believed (2Thes1:10). But again, some shall not marvel or believe, nor be prepared to mourn and repent for their sins and disbelief (Rev 1:7). Rather, they shall raise their fists to God and refuse to bow the knee to His Son. For He is the summation of all that is good, whereas they, unlike the bulk of humanity, are unable to admire what is noble and praiseworthy but take delight in what is hateful, evil and perverse. (You should know perfectly well that is not the case for most non-Christians). To remain true to themselves these individuals could never play any positive role in “a new heaven and new earth where righteousness dwells” (2Pet3:13). Refusing to repent they shall be appropriately and proportionally punished for their crimes against God and humanity.

The fate of such reprobates in the age to come is graphically depicted in the closing verses of Isaiah: “For just as the new heavens and the new earth which I shall make, will endure before Me,” declares the Lord, “so will My peoples’ descendants and your name endure. And from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh will come to bow down before Me,” says the Lord. Then they will go out and look at the corpses of the people who have rebelled against Me. For their worm will not die and their fire will not be extinguished; and they will be an abhorrence to all flesh”. (Is66:23-24). It could hardly be the case that God’s elect would  be summoned each Sabbath to bow down to God, they shall be forever with Him, serving Him gladly. This is referring to the rest of humanity (“all flesh”). But as ever there is a sub-category, who in the age to come shall be openly punished and exhibited – “an abhorrence to all flesh”.

Such is mirrored in Revelation (chapter 21). God’s elect shall form the new Jerusalem, “like a bride adorned for her Husband” (v2). But then note verse 24: “The nations shall walk by its light and the kings of the earth will bring the glory and honouring of the nations into it”. But once again there is a third group who are to be entirely excluded: “Nothing unclean, and no one who practices abomination and lying, shall ever come into it, but only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s book of life (v27). The “unclean” shall need to be “placed into the lake of fire”, partly for punishment but potentially for purification. For as third century Origen suggested: “The fury of God’s vengeance is profitable for the purgation of souls. That the punishment also which is said to be by fire is understood to be applied with the object of healing is taught by Isaiah: The Lord will wash away the filth of the sons or daughters of Zion and shall purge away the blood from the midst of them by the spirit of judgement and the spirit of burning…The Lord will sanctify in a burning fire.  [Origen de Principiis Book II chap. 10]. The lake of fire is “the second death” and (to put it mildly) is best avoided.

We can be assured (from Scripture) that every being that can ultimately be redeemed shall be so, but for the more obnoxious it shall be a long and painful process. If the Book of Enoch is to be believed [note 2] those undergoing such punishment shall have opportunity to repent once they have paid the price for their sins, whilst those who still refuse to do so shall be annihilated. For everything that remains is to be subject to the administration of Christ referred to in our featured passage. Then what? “He must reign till all enemies have been placed under His feet” (1Cor15:25), the final enemy to be destroyed is death” (v26). What – first death? second death? No, DEATH! Ultimately even the Lord shall subject Himself and His Kingdom to the Father, who only once His enemies have either repented or been entirely obliterated could God truly be said to be “all in all” (v28).


Note#1 – Confusion as to who remains on earth after the Parousia can arise in view of the “rapture” (Mt24:40-41; 1Thes4:17). Prior to Christ’s coming the elect shall be temporarily removed from the earth to be spared from the climax of tribulations that the rest of the world must endure. Christ then comes with His saints (living and resurrected) to judge and rule the world (1Thes3:13). It is the wicked who are to be removed from the earth when God (in Christ) comes to reign.The righteous shall never be removed: it is the wicked who shall not inhabit the earth (Prov10:30). That shall be the case once God comes to reign:I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.  And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is to be with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself shall be with them, and be their God” (Rev21:2-3).

Note#2 The Book of Enoch is ex-canonical scripture that was nevertheless regarded as inspired and a genuine work of the Patriarch by some early Church Fathers such as Clement, Irenaeus, Origen, Augustine and Tertullian. This is hardly surprising since it is directly quoted in the New Testament (Jude14,15). The opening verse suggests it was never intended for the Church throughout her history, but for the current time: “The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and the righteous who will be living in the day of tribulation when all the wicked and godless are to be removed (Enoch1 ch1 v1)

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Related post: Christians - God's acquired possession 


1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the holy ones who are at Ephesus and are faithful in Christ Jesus: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly realms in Christ, just as He elected us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and faultless before Him in love. He predestined us to adoption as sons to Himself through Jesus Christ, according to the good pleasure of His will, to the praise of the glory of His grace, with which He favored us in the Beloved (Eph1:1-6)

After a few weeks researching and writing on, I return to Paul’s letters, moving on to Ephesians. Firstly, note how Paul describes his addressees (v1): “ἁγίοις” – saints, holy ones, those who have been set apart from the world. This is in line with how God had addressed the Jewish Nation under the Old Covenant: “You shall be a special treasure to Me above all other people, for all the earth is Mine” (Ex19:5). These descriptions allude to the heart of what I am endeavouring to impart – that although God loves the world as a whole (Jn3:16) and all the earth is His (Ex19:5), from the time of Abraham He has chosen a special people for Himself to be “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” (Ex19:6). Under the New Covenant the Church has similarly become “a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession(1Pet2:9)”. And to hell with everybody else? It should be evident from these descriptions that cannot be the case, yet it is what I reluctantly believed as an Evangelical for the first 28 years of my Christian life. I now know such a depiction to be a travesty of what had been heralded as “the Good News of great joy that shall be to all people” (Lk2:10), and the time has come for that to be systematically adduced from Scripture.

God’s broader benign providence

Such a conviction of broader benign providence derived from two spiritual encounters, fourteen years apart that I briefly outlined in an earlier post. The second of these focussed on a passage shortly to be considered in Ephesians: God’s secret plan, revealed not directly through Jesus or His twelve disciples but through Paul (Eph3:3-11). But the joyful vista being outlined is not dependent on a particular passage of Scripture or one biblical author, it is, as it must be, a coherent re-interpretation of the whole bible. Nor is there any need to wait for me to plod through the rest of the New Testament; the matter has already been set out in The Little Book of Providence, a PDF of which is freely available through the link supplied.

Returning to Paul’s opening statement, and it’s more of the same. His addressees had been “elected in Christ before the foundation of the world, to be holy and faultless before Him in love – having been predestined to adoption as the very sons of God through Jesus Christ (vv4-5). Again, it should be evident that Paul is not referring to the “world and his wife” but to Christ and His intended (Rev19:7 & 21:9). As for the rest, their post-mortem destiny is determined along the lines of Mt25:31-46. For like the Gentiles of the Old Testament, not having been elected to the exclusive Covenant of Promise from which Ishmael, though blessed by God and Abraham was excluded, he and they function within an over-arching (theologically eluded) Universal Covenant from which Cain defaulted (Gen4), as shall all who follow in his way (Jud1:11) having demonstrated by their inhumanity they have souls derived or planted by the Evil One (Mt15:13; 1Jn3:12). Exactly how the three soteriological categories resulting from these two covenants are integrated with the rest of Scripture is what my book and these posts are primarily about.

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1See with what large letters I have written to you with my own hand! 12 All who want to make a good showing in the flesh try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted for the cross of Christ. 13 For those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves, but they want to have you circumcised so that they may boast in your flesh. 14 But far be it from me to boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. 15 For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. 16 And all who will follow this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God. 17 From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my body the marks of Jesus. 18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brothers. Amen [Gal6:11-18]

Do not love the world

Paul’s remarks in verse 11 confirm this passage to be Paul’s concluding statement in his letter to the Galatian Church. The summary also affirms that his overriding theme has been the activity of the Judaizing infiltrators who urged Christians to be circumcised and be subject to the “works of the Law”, i.e. the Torah rather than to place their faith in a crucified Messiah. That had been the context of much of the apostle’s supposed anti-law rhetoric. Paul, in starkest contrast to these infiltrators, whom he pointed out failed to keep the Law themselves (v13), positively boasted in Christ and His cross “through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world” (v14). In the same vein, the Apostle John had written:

Do not love the world nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.  For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world (1Jn2:15-16)

In the English language, the world and the earth can virtually be synonymous. Less so in biblical Greek.  Κόσμος can refer to the earth in a positive sense as part of God’s creation (e.g. Jn1:10). It can also refer to the earth’s inhabitants whom Jesus was not sent to condemn but to rescue (Jn3:17). But more often κόσμος indicates a system or orderly arrangement, and as a result of the Fall, not one that is directly overseen or approved of by God – au contraire (Jn14:30; Mt4:8-9). That is the negative sense in which Paul and John are referring to κόσμος in the above texts. These apostles are not saying we should not love and care for God’s good earth and its inhabitants. Indeed, in the final judgement referred to in Revelation, those to be utterly condemned are described as “those who are ruining the earth” (11:18). But Κόσμος has been crucified to Paul and Paul to Κόσμος because it pertains to the flesh – John’s “lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life”.

As Paul affirmed in the previous chapter those who belong to Christ Jesus have extinguished the flesh with its passions and desires (5:24), and that should profoundly affect their relationship with the world – they are to be in it but not of it. In Paul’s words, Christians have become a new creation (v15); in Jesus’ words “born again” of water and the Spirit (Jn3:5). The water refers to baptism – What? “Didn’t you realize that we who have been baptized into Christ Jesus have been baptized into his death? Our old self was crucified with him in order that our body of sin might be disempowered such that we would no longer be under its sinful dominion” (Rom6:6). The inter-relationship between the soul, flesh and spirit has been re-orientated such that the Christian is free to serve the living God, even whilst in mortal flesh.

Redemption of the body

However, as Paul has also indicated, the Christian’s ultimate destiny which is to be adopted into the immediate family of God, is consummated at the point at which the body is redeemed (Rom8:23). For few if any appear to have grasped the wondrous Pauline truth that it is not the human soul that is the source [note 1] of man’s problem with sin but the temporary procreated intellectual vessel into which the eternal spiritual component of man is diffused – “the body of this death”, “the body of sin” or “flesh” as Paul variously describes it. And it is only the Christian who is enabled, by applying the means of grace provided to him, “to possess his own vessel in sanctity and honour” (1Thes4:4). For in accordance with God’s secret plan cryptically alluded to in Rev10, it appears to have been His intention that for most of the Christian era gospel salvation should be understood as the sole means by which anyone can be delivered from perdition. That is, as opposed to what it actually is – the calling, cleansing and sanctifying of a people who need to be made ready for a glorious marital-like association with Christ in the age to come (Rev19:7).

The eluded covenant

As mentioned in some recent posts, what happens to everyone else is determined by whether they remain or default from the eluded inclusive covenant depicted in Gen4. Abel remained whilst Cain defaulted, for which reason he declared “My punishment is too much to bear – from this day I am to be hidden from your presence” (Gen4:14), indicating of course that before his fratricide such total alienation was not the case. The Sinful One was crouching at the portal of his soul (Gen4:7KJV) – Cain by his hateful actions made him welcome and accordingly came under new management (1Jn3:12). It is a covenant that operates through natural law (fair to all because it is known by all). Such is not a basic law of mother nature but pertains to divine precepts for human conduct apprehended via the conscience, having been provided by the One through Whom and for Whom all things were created. That is Christ, with whose Passion such law is associated in regard to the propitiation and pardon for the sin of all who demonstrate they are of God (Mt15:13; 1Jn3:10 & 4:7). Its eschatological outworking is to be seen in Jesus’ processing of the “sheep” and “goats” in Mt25 – love rather than religious faith being the key determinant. That is why religion does not so much as receive a mention within the New Testament’s definitive passage on final judgement.

The mystery of Augustine

Finally, note Paul’s benediction: “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brothers. Amen”. Truly, Paul cannot be rightly interpreted (or even rightly translated in terms of spirit/Spirit) unless we acknowledge his tripartite theology – i.e. that the human being comprises a body, soul and spirit (1Thes5:23). The earliest Christians largely understood as much, but as the Wikipedia analysis I have linked observes, it was once again Augustine who rejected that earlier consensus and through his extraordinary influence ensured that the Western Church followed suit. But then, the distinctives of that bishop’s theology (relished by the Protestant Reformers) always tend towards vilifying humanity and mystifying if not positively barbarizing God’s nature, typified by his insistence that even the souls of little children are so odious to Christ (Jn5:22) that any who die unbaptized must experience sensual pain through eternity [note 2]. He more than any other historical figure has ensured that the aforementioned mystery of God concerning the true munificence of divine providence be sustained until the appointed time, so in that sense this sainted churchman has fulfilled the will of God for the church and the world.

Anticipating Ephesians

When rightly understood and as his concluding statement indicates, the thematic focus of Paul’s letter to the Galatians is somewhat narrower than many have taken (or wished) it to be – so I have taken the opportunity in this post to summarize the essentials of what I believe the Spirit has revealed to me (book link below). Ephesians is much grander in scope, the great apostle outlining God’s ultimate purpose for the world and the church. Not to mention the disclosure that got me writing in the first place – God the Father’s secret plan for the Gentile nations in the current age (ch.3), the wondrous providential implications of which once again appear to have eluded virtually everyone.


Note 1: The soul will however receive collateral moral damage from the vessel it inhabits. Hence Peter writes “Abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul” (1Pet2:11). Note, the fleshly lusts war against the soul, they are not derived from it. Given how Paul is usually interpreted one might have expected Peter to be writing that lusts of the flesh war against the Holy Spirit! (cf. Gal5:17). They do, but that is not the point either Peter or Paul are making.

Note 2: Latin: paena sensus (cf. New Advent: Catholic Encyclopaedia under headings “Unbaptised infants”, “Limbo” and the “Teaching of St Augustine”).

The LITTLE BOOK OF PROVIDENCE: a seven-part synopsis of the bible

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Bear one another’s burdens, and thereby fulfil the law of ChristFor if anyone thinks that he is something when he is nothing, he deceives himself. But each one must examine his own work, and then he may be able to boast with respect to himself, but not (by comparing with) others. For each one will bear his own load. The one who is taught the word is to share all good things with the one who teaches him. Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for what a person sows, such he will reapFor the one who sows to his own flesh will reap destruction from the flesh, but the one who sows to the Spirit will reap eternal life from the Spirit. Let’s not become discouraged in doing good, for in due time we will reap providing we do not become weary. (Gal6:2-9)

Fulfilling the law of Christ

Unsurprisingly in view of the context of Paul’s letter to the Galatians, recent posts have focussed on the Law (Torah) and God’s law in general, examining which of the following applies: 

i) God’s law is not really an issue for the Christian – he is saved by grace/faith alone (Luther’s law versus gospel paradigm);

ii) the Torah has become redundant, but God’s law is to be fulfilled in spirit;

iii) Christians must continue to fulfil the Torah to the letter as the Galatian Judaizers were insisting.

I have been showing that Paul’s teaching accords with the middle case (ii). An example of what I mean is the opening verse of our passage: “Bear one another’s burdens, and thereby fulfil the law of Christ”. James expresses a similar idea when he writes: “If you are fulfilling the royal law  of ‘love your neighbor as yourself’, you are doing well” (2:8), remembering that in the previous chapter Paul had written: “the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in the statement, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself” (5:14). Similarly, James’ assertion that faith without works is dead (2:26) accords with Paul’s comment from the previous chapter that “in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision means anything, but faith working through love” (5:6). That statement had been aimed at the Judaizers insisting on Christians being circumcised, but taken with Paul’s and James’ other statements above it also challenges Luther’s notion that God’s law and the gospel (incorporating the teaching of Jesus) are in any sense antithetical. However, Torah observance and the gospel are at odds now that Christ has “cancelled the written code with its regulations that was against us and that stood opposed to us; he took it away, nailing it to the cross (Col2:14NIV). That has been the focus of Paul’s anti-Law rhetoric in Galatians. But he also continues to make the broader point that it is the quality we know of as faith rather than works or law keeping that justifies a person before God. But that saving quality (πίστις = faith/faithfulness) by its very nature cannot be devoid of works, more especially ἀγάπη (compassionate love) which is effectively faith’s efflux (Gal5:6).   

You reap what you sow

Many people in the world give credence to the expression: “what goes around comes around”. Some will confine such a maxim to paybacks during a person’s lifetime; those with a semblance of religious faith may also apply it to what is likely to happen thereafter. Contrary to what I believed for many years as an Evangelical Christian, the world broadly has it right in this regard. Paul affirms as much here (and especially Rom2:6-11) whilst Christ is still more adamant, especially regarding the post-mortem dimension. I had believed such a maxim to be inappropriate from a Christian perspective, but that was because I had misconceived the nature of grace and faith and what the bible (especially Paul) really means by those terms. That is an ongoing theme of these posts, but confining ourselves to this short Galatian passage, Paul uses a farming analogy, easily understood by his contemporaries but also suitably timeless: “What a person sows, such he will reap – the one who sows to his own flesh will reap destruction from the flesh, but the one who sows to the Spirit will reap eternal life from the Spirit” (vv7b-8).

The translation here could equally well be “spirit” rather than “Spirit”, the former referring to Paul’s “inner man” that delights in God’s law and everything that is pleasing to Him (Rom7:22). In the Christian that inner man is renewed and daily invigorated by the Holy Spirit (2Cor4:16). For many more, such as those Paul depicts in that passage, the inner man or spirit is present and active (delighting in what is good) but is incapacitated by the flesh, creating a moral dichotomy (Rom7:23). But then there is a third category in which the spirit/inner man is quite dead – these are the “twice dead” (in flesh and spirit – Jude1:12). They are the offspring of the Evil One (1Jn3:12), the children of Hell (Mt23:15). The theological error has been to lump the second and third categories together as “the unsaved”. They are unsaved in the gospel sense, but with radically different natures and destinies. This pertains to an eluded universal covenant and the role of evil within divine providence, the sustaining of which mystery was foretold and divinely intended. Its end-time resolution is cryptically alluded to in canonical Scripture, more overtly so in the Book of Enoch.

 In terms of sowing and reaping, Paul has just shown why pursuing the desires of the flesh results in rotten fruit and spiritual death (previous post). The apostle concludes the passage touching upon another recurring theme within these posts: that whilst election to the Covenant of Promise is unconditional and unmerited, final salvation is dependant on human effort as well as grace: “Let’s not become discouraged in doing good, for in due time we will reap providing we do not become weary”. No doubt to the bewilderment of many readers, Paul elsewhere likens the Christian pilgrimage to competitors in a stadium. Many embark upon the race but few shall attain the prize (1Cor9:24-27) – that prize being an intimate and eternal association with God’s Son, sharing His throne, no less (Rev3:21; 19:7). The fact that proportionately few, even amongst those who have been baptized (Rev3:4) shall be counted worthy to attain such an honour will be better understood in the context of the vastly broader benign providence outlined in my book. For, “God has made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He set forth in Christ regarding His plan to be put into effect in the fullness of the times, to bring all things together into Christ, things in the heavens and things on the earth” (Eph1:9-10).

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A book exploring the mystery of divine providence